It is undoubtedly true that pollution doesn’t need any sort of passport or visa to enter a particular zone. It is because of the rising level of pollution consisting of CO2 and other greenhouse gases affecting the temperature that Climate Change has become inevitable and is affecting the environment to a great extent and thereby, becoming a matter of global concern. Since the inception of UNFCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) in 1992, the nations ponder upon the same annually and make strategies to curb the menace of ‘global warming’. After almost four years of negotiations, 196 nations had finally entered into an agreement on climate change in a conference held in Paris from November 30 to December 12, 2015 , commonly called as Paris Agreement or COP 21 (Conference of Parties’ 21st session). The agreement terminated the work of the Durban platform, which was established during 17th session of COP.
The Paris agreement mainly aimed at dealing with the perilous impact of climate change whether occurred due to natural or anthropogenic activities. In a bid to achieve the goal of limiting global warming to less than 2 degrees Celsius and to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C, the nations were asked to submit their INDCs (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions) to the UNFCC. Bringing all the nations together for a common cause, this agreement became a great success. The submissions included the commitments which varied depending upon the country. In order to meet the needs of the environment this conference emerged as a requisite step. Combating this menace is something more than just deliberation. This agreement decided on how the INDCs would be effectively implemented.
As far as the role of India is concerned, it was worth appreciating. It played a very critical and, to a very much extent, unexpected role in the conference. The Hon’ble Prime Minister of India repeatedly expressed the need to address the issue of Climate Change and portrayed India’s count on the same with conviction. India being one of the highly vulnerable countries, had raised concern over the threat of global warming and demanded an equitable and just agreement to be signed. The approach of India towards other countries was to express the idea of “common but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities” which emphasized on the fact that though the firewall between developing and developed countries is gone, the deal is still going to reflect varying capabilities of rich and poor. Being the 4th biggest emitter of carbon and acknowledging the fact that the future of its emissions will be more than that of other countries, the submissions made by India were not only meant to make a pathway for the development of the country, but it made sure that the INDC includes some leeway for other developing countries too. The major quantitative targets mentioned were to reduce the percentage of emissions intensity in terms of GDP by 33-35% by 2030, to develop 100 GW of solar power capacity by 2022, and to receive 40% of its power from renewable resources by 2030. Discussing the egregious consequences of global warming it was said by the Prime Minister that the developed countries should have much more stringent and uncompromising responsibilities than the developing countries.
As per the critics the conference was less of a commitment and more of aspiration. Another notable fact is that the agreement does not bind countries to limit the emissions. Whether the deal was a success in true sense or not, it is still a question for the environmentalists. According to them, the need is to focus on effective and immediate actions rather than weak solutions. The deliberations done at the conference needed to provide apposite support for transformation and catalyse the process of reducing hazardous emissions. Owing to the masterful diplomacy, it is claimed that many countries simply gained confidence and bridged the gap amongst each other. With time the commitments or in other words aspirations will end up showing the consequences of the politics and diplomacy of climate change.